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The Yersinia Elispot LTT test is designed to detect the plague bacteria,Yersinia pestis.


Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease has been notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death and devastation it has brought. Yet, despite the seemingly mythical tales associated with the plague, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Until June 2007, plague was one of the three epidemic diseases specifically reportable to the World Health Organization.


Depending on lung infection, or sanitary conditions, plague also can be spread in the air, by direct contact, or by contaminated undercooked food or materials. The symptoms of plague depend on the concentrated areas of infection in each person: such as bubonic plague in lymph nodes, septicemic plague in blood vessels, pneumonic plague in lungs, and so on. It is treatable if detected early.


(Plague occurs in different forms, depending on the location of infection.)


Bubonic plague: This form of plague is the most common of all (more than 80% of all cases). It takes its name from the infected lymph nodes called "buboes." Buboes are very painful, red and swollen lymph nodes that develop quickly near the area of the flea bite. If the bite was on the leg, a bubo would probably appear in the groin. If the flea bite was on the arm, buboes might appear in the underarm or in the neck. About 2 to 6 days after the flea bite, a person with bubonic plague develops a high fever, chills, muscle aches, headache and extreme weakness and within another 24 hours, 1 or more buboes appear. With prompt treatment of appropriate antibiotics, over 90% of people will survive. Without proper treatment, the Y. pestis bacteria could spread through the bloodstream and a person could develop septicemic plague.


Septicemic plague: This form of plague is the second most common. It can develop when Y. pestis bacteria spread through the bloodstream and cause a blood infection called septicemia. It can also happen if Y. pestis spreads from a bubo or from the lungs into the bloodstream, or if the Y. pestis bacteria get into the bloodstream after a person has direct contact with the meat or blood of an infected animal. The first symptoms of septicemic plague can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. The person can also develop severe bleeding problems, including sudden bleeding under the skin, scattered bruises, blood in the urine and abnormal bleeding from the mouth, nose and rectum. The bleeding problems can be followed by signs of shock (severe drop in blood pressure, rapid pulse, unconsciousness), kidney failure, severe breathing difficulties and even death. With appropriate treatment, however, 75% to 80% of people survive


Pneumonic plague: This form of plague is currently very rare. It happens when Y. pestisbacteria infect the lungs and cause pneumonia. It can develop when a person breathes in droplets of Y. pestis from an animal or person who has plague infection in the lungs. People who have bubonic or septicemic plague can also develop Y. pestis infection in the lungs. Symptoms include high fever, chills, headaches, chest pain, rapid breathing, severe shortness of breath and cough that might bring up blood. Without proper treatment, the disease can quickly lead to death.


LTT tests:

The LTT test reflects the actual, current Borrelia burgdorferi activity of chronic and also acute Lyme infections. The Elispot-LTT is highly sensitive and can detect even one single Borrelia-reactive T-cell in the blood. The Elispot-LTT is very helpful when monitoring a chronic or acute Lyme therapy, and should usually become negative about 6 to 8 weeks after completion of an effective therapy. 

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